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Gem Stones


Deep red stone, usually faceted. Sometimes seen as a cabochon, especially in men's jewelry.

  • Has been used as a gemstone and an abrasive since the Bronze Age
  • There are a variety of types of garnet, the rarest being the "blue garnet", discovered during the 1990's in Madagascar
  • It is the gemstone for the 2nd wedding anniversary
  • It is the state mineral of Connecticut
  • It is the state gemstone of New York
  • Folklore claims that garnet's powers include healing, strength and protection
  • It is often warn to relieve inflammations of the skin, regulate the heart and blood flow, and aid in curing depression
  • In the past, it was given as gifts between friends to demonstrate their affection for one another


Lavender to purple stone, usually faceted. Sometimes seen as a cabochon or a bead.

  • The name comes from the Greek "methustos", which means "to intoxicate"
  • Was believed to protect its wearer from drunkenness
  • Was used as a gemstone as early as the ancient Egyptians
  • Seen as a symbol of heavenly understanding (especially in the philosophical, religious, spiritual, ands material planes)
  • Traditionally, ranking members or the Roman Catholic Church wear rings set with large amethysts as a symbol of their status


Pale blue to a bluish-green, almost always faceted. Also seen as a cabochon, with a cat's eye effect.

  • Its chemical composition is closely related to the emerald
  • It is the official state gemstone of Colorado
  • People in the middle Ages believed it could magically counteract the effects of poison
  • Ancient sailors often slept with the stone under their pillows because they believed it would protect them while on the seas
  • Ancient sailors also believed that the mermaid's fish-like lower body was made of the gemstone
  • It has been believed to endow the wearer with foresight, courage, and happiness
  • It is said to increase intelligence and make one more youthful


  • Most diamonds are more than 3 billion years old (2/3 the age of the Earth)
  • The youngest diamonds were made about 100 million years ago
  • Most diamonds were made more that 100 miles below the Earth's surface, some as many as 400 miles down
  • They are carried to the surface of the Earth through volcanic eruptions
  • The only known source of diamonds before the 6th century was in India, which remained the predominant source until the mid-18th century
  • Ancient Romans and Indians believed that diamonds had the power to ward off evil and wore them as protective talismans
  • A law in 13th century France decreed that only kings could wear diamonds
  • Diamonds are used in a variety of industries, including space travel, optometry, and the surgical field
  • The word "diamond" comes from the Greek word "adamas", which means "unconquerable and indestructible"
  • In 1477, the first recorded diamond was given to woman as a promise of marriage


Top quality stones are a clear, deep green. Lower quality stones are paler and cloudy. Usually faceted, sometimes seen as a cabochon.

  • A high quality emerald can be more valuable that a fine diamond of the same carat weight
  • It is the traditional gift of the 55th wedding anniversary
  • They are believed to enhance the clairvoyance (or 6th sense) of their wearers
  • Symbolizes rebirth and youth
  • They are also worn to promote healing and enhance love and contentment
  • Emeralds have been used since the time of the ancient Egyptians, around 4000 years ago (Cleopatra was an avid collector)
  • The best quality emeralds in the world come from South America
  • In the Inca and the Aztec cultures, the emerald was revered as a holy stone


Most commonly white or cream, but also comes in a variety of colors and shapes. The only gemstone that is naturally perfect; not faceted, cut, or altered by man.

  • It is the only gemstone formed within a living creature
  • The ancient Arabians used to say that pearl were formed "when dewdrops filled with moonlight fell into the ocean and were swallowed by oysters"
  • Today, it is rare to find natural pearls (almost all pearls are cultured, meaning they were grown on a farm)
  • It is the traditional gift for the 1st, 3rd, 12th, and the 30th wedding anniversaries
  • The pearl is the oldest gem and is therefore often referred to as the "queen of gems"
  • Folklore states that it possesses the magical powers that provide or increase protection, prosperity, and healing, as well feelings of peacefulness, love, and compassion
  • According to the Ancient Greeks, the pearl symbolized purity and loyalty in the marital bed
  • During the middle Ages, brave knights often wore pearls into b Battle for protection
  • In feudal Japan, physicians often treated their patients with ointments and medications made from ground up pearls


Top quality stones are deep red and clear. Lower quality stones are paler and cloudier. Usually faceted, but also seen as a cabochon.

  • It is celebrated in ancient Sanskrit writings and the Bible as the most precious of gemstones
  • Ruby is the red version of "corundum" mineral, which is also the sapphire's base mineral (the sapphire and the ruby are different colors of the same stone)
  • It is one of the most expensive gemstones and is considered by many as the "King of Precious Stones" (like the emerald, it can be worth far more than a diamond)
  • Has long been believed to have the power to heal and protect; including to prevent blood-loss and strengthen the heart
  • Many Eastern cultures once believed that the ruby contains the "spark of life" or a "deep drop of the heart's blood of Mother Earth"
  • During the middle Ages, people believed that rubies brought good health, guarded against wicked thoughts, amorous desires, and disputes between neighbors


Bright, yellowish green, usually faceted. May also be seen as a cabochon or a bead, rapidly rising in value.

  • It was used as a gemstone by the ancient Egyptians 3500 years ago and was often confused with the emerald (sometimes called the "evening emerald")
  • It is formed during volcanic eruptions * Hawaiian legend calls peridot the "divine tears" wept by Pele, the goddess of the volcano
  • It has been credited with the magical powers to protect against nightmares and ward off evil
  • It is the gemstone gift for the 16th wedding anniversary
  • It is also thought to bring the wearer peace, success, and good luck
  • It has also been credited with the ability to calm anger, soothe nerves, and dispel negative emotions
  • Peridot was once ground into a powder and given orally to patients with asthma


Top quality stones are a rich, deep, clear blue. Lower quality stones are lighter and cloudy. Almost always faceted. Star sapphires are the most common cabochon.

  • In ancient Persia, rulers once believed that the Earth rested on a giant sapphire and it was the reflection from this sapphire that gave the heavens their blue color
  • It has been credited with the profound powers to protect the wearer from poisons and evil spirits
  • It is given as the official gift for the 5th, 23rd, and 45th wedding anniversaries (the star sapphire is given on the 65th wedding anniversary)
  • Sapphire was a popular stone for royalty to include in crowns, brooches, scepters, and other bejeweled items
  • It has also been said that the sapphire reflects the soul of whoever wears it
  • Sapphire has also been recognized to symbolize truth, sincerity, and fidelity (making it the perfect stone for an engagement ring)
  • In ancient times, lovers believed that if they gave a sapphire to their beloved, it would not shine if the other had been unfaithful


Base color is either white or black, with a range of fiery opalescence. The more opalescence, the better the quality. Almost always seen as a cabochon.

  • According to the ancient Greeks and Romans, it symbolized hope, innocence, and purity
  • It is the suggested gemstone gift for the 13th wedding anniversary
  • It is believed to aid inner beauty, faithfulness, and eyesight
  • May help the wearer recall past lives
  • The ancient Romans called the opal "cupid paederos" or "child as beautiful as love" and believed the wearer was safe from disease
  • The ancient Arabs believed that opals fell from the heavens in flashes of lightening
  • It is also rumored that Cleopatra wore opals to gain the attention of Mark Anthony


Rich, deep golden yellow, almost always faceted. May also be seen as a cabochon; most valuable type of topaz.

  • It is the suggested anniversary gemstone for the 23rd wedding anniversary
  • The name comes from Sanskrit and means fire
  • During the middle ages, it was believed to heal both mental and physical disorders, as well as prevent death
  • The ancient Greeks thought it had the power to increase strength and make the wearer invisible
  • Ancient Romans thought it could improve eyesight
  • Ancient Egyptians wore it as a protective amulet against injury


Pale to dark blue, usually faceted. Also seen as a cabochon and a bead. Most common gemstone.

  • It is the suggested gemstone gift for the 4th wedding anniversary
  • It is believed to have the power to cool tempers, restore sanity, cure insomnia, relieve asthma, and ward off sudden death
  • It is associated with loyalty because it was once believed to change colors in the presence of poison
  • In the Hindu religion, topaz is one of the sacred stones of the Kalpa tree (and would heal those who thirst, give a heightened sense of intelligence, and increase a person's life span)
  • In Africa, the gem has been used by Bushmen to ensure safe journeys and healing
  • It is also said to have creative powers and can help people concentrate